The Treatment of Mastitis in Cattle

using Isopathic-Homœopathic Remedies.

An Introduction

by

Peter Schneider
(Dr.med.vet. Dr.rer.nat.)

 

© Copyright by Peter Schneider 

Summary

This contribution provides an introduction to the isopathic-homœopathic treatment of bovine mastitis. The treatment is based on the work of Enderlein, who sees endobionts and disturbances in the acid-base balance as causative of acute and chronic infections. As well as isopathic remedies, haptene preparations, immunomodulators and medicines to improve cell respiration are also presented as features of this regulatory treatment. In cases of mastitis, one pre-condition of successful treatment is that disturbing factors such as faulty milking technique or inadequate care conditions are largely reduced.

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Cases of bovine mastitis may be divided ætiologically into two groups: contagious and constitutional (6). According to the progress of the condition and the clinical appearance, they are further classified into peracute, acute, chronic or sub-clinical mastitis, the first being usually fatal and the last two generally only being recognised when the cell content of the milk is tested.

Sub-clinical cases of bovine mastitis in particular are responsible for immense losses in the order of about DM 2 billion annually (3), about 70% of which is attributable to a loss of milk production. Sub-clinical mastitis may be a consequence of partially cured acute mastitis, or it may occur as a precursor of the acute form. The exciting microbes which are mainly isolated are Staphylococcus aureus and “environmental germs”.

With structural changes in modern milk production, the spectrum of causative agents of bovine mastitis has shifted from the classical causes of contagious mastitis, such as Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Staphylococcus aureus and streptococci of serogroups G and L, towards the causes of constitutional mastitis (the “environmental germs”) such as Streptococcus uberis, Escherichia coli and the coliform bacteria.

Infected lactiferous glands are reservoirs of classic mastitis-exciting organisms. Transmission of bacteria may take place during milking time, with faulty milking technique being a decisive factor. “Environmental germs”, on the other hand, are mainly transmitted between milking times, their transmission being favoured by shortcomings in care conditions, (such as shed climate, straw, injuries to the teats, milking regime).

Conditions of milk production these days mean that mastitis is almost always a problem of stock. Other exciting causes, such as fungi, yeasts or algæ occur only sporadically or within endemic boundaries.

In high-performance cows the occurrence of mastitis may be favoured by errors in feeding, which may result in an interlocking chain reaction leading to metabolic disturbances (3). As a part of these disturbances, changes of milieu take place in the tissues, which may favour the proliferation of pathogenic micro-organisms. Changes of milieu are characterised chiefly by a depression of the pH and the redox potential [rH2]. Amongst others, one consequence of such a change is that Staphylococcus aureus, which is pathogenic in the udders, is phagocytized by the action of neutrophil granulocytes; however for the most part the bacteria are not killed, but remain alive within the phagocytes (2,7). The particular enzymatic provision of Staph. aureus enables it moreover to migrate deep into the tissue of the udder, where medication can only reach it with difficulty. Thus it is extremely important, in cases of chronic Staph. aureus infection, to give an additional isopathic-homœopathic treatment at the end of lactation, or soon after. At this stage, with the involution of the glands, the glandular tissue is largely dismantled, resulting in exposure of the staphylococci and rendering them more susceptible to medication.

In the prevention and treatment of mastitis, “environmental germs” are more difficult to get at than are the classic exciting micro-organisms. Therefore it is necessary to develop procedures which will enable mastitis to be more effectively controlled. Here the use of isopathic-homœopathic remedies has the advantage of employing a treatment principle which is also part of the physiological process for regulating inflammations.

Isopathic-Homœopathic Remedies

The following remedies are available for the tried-and-tested isopathic-homœopathic regulatory treatment of bovine mastitis. In using these remedies no waiting time is required.

Isopathic Remedies

Isopathic treatment goes back to the work of the German, Prof. Dr. Günther Enderlein. Most of his work was already published soon after the first world war.

For millions of years colloids of the strains of fungi Mucor racemosus Fresen and Aspergillus niger van Tieghem have inhabited the bodies of human beings and all mammals. These fungal strains represent the transition to higher forms, and their developmental processes in humans and animals were observed and described by Prof. Enderlein (5). In a healthy organism they occur as primitive forms, having an important regulative role to play in the metabolism. “Endobiont” was the name that Prof. Enderlein gave to these micro-organisms which penetrated the whole mammalian order millions of years ago.

The Endobiont’s course of development has its origin in the most primitive form: the colloidal stage. Colloids are the minutest particles of albumen. Having passed through various intermediate stages as they grow, they may then enter the bacterial stage. Within this cycle of development they pass through numerous further stages, which can lead to an extremely wide variety of chronic diseases. The final stage of this cycle is the fungal stage. However, this can only be observed within the living organism in the terminal stage. Thus the Endobiont passes through three basic developmental stages: colloid - bacterium - fungus. Up to this point, these had always been regarded as independent, immutable organisms. Prof. Enderlein demonstrated this developmental process and explained that, taken together, all these stages make up one single common cycle, whose conclusion depends on the completely identical, inarticulate, colloidal and inert albumen which is contained within the relevant cells. These particles of albumen in the primitive stage are of the same order of size as bacteriophages and viruses (c. 0.01mm). Under certain conditions, shapes separate off from this mass, having come into existence under circumstances conducive to illness, and these continue to circulate in the cycle. They multiply and take on an infinitely large number of shapes and forms.

Various causes - infections, incorrect feeding and keeping conditions, environmental circumstances which are contrary to nature, manifestations of ageing, and so on, may - according to Enderlein - cause these primitive forms of life to evolve to higher stages, so that they become parasitic. On this subject, Enderlein wrote:

“As soon as the blood serum balance between mineral salts (bases, alkalis) and acids is deranged more towards the acid side for some time, as a result of wrong, non-biological nutrition, these endobionts begin an unbridled proliferation, and the elevation of these primitive little blobs to the parasitic stage is underway. Soon they will be a part of the great order of parasites. The higher an endobiont climbs up the evolutionary scale, the greater its potential to do damage becomes, and the greater the disturbance of the acid-alkaline balance; thus this disturbance forms part of a mutually intensifying and alternating relationship.”

What Enderlein wrote (5) applied to numerous different types of bacteria. In a similar way, primitive life forms which are present at the physiological level in the tissue of the udder may, if the surrounding milieu changes, develop into pathogenic forms of bacteria, causing additional damage to the host animal. The effects of these parasites may be determined in the blood, and probably also in the secretion of the udder, by means of dark-field microscopy.

However, such bacterial forms develop not only in the tissue of the udder, but also in other tissues of the body where, by means of various mechanisms, they can often be successfully repulsed. Compared with other tissues, the defensive power of the tissue in the udder is considerably weaker. Purely by reason of the blood-udder barrier, any humoral defense against bacteria is of a very limited nature. Thus, in cases of chronic mastitis, it often appears that a sick udder is found in an otherwise “healthy” organism.

In the course of over 40 years of intensive research, Prof. Enderlein succeeded in observing the changes in and development of parasites in their various guises and in their cycle. It was not until he was in a position to explain the basic principles of parasites from both a biological and a developmental angle that therapeutic measures for their regulation could be evolved. This led to Isotherapy, which states that the various more highly developed, pathogenic forms must be reduced back to their lower, non-pathogenic forms, which then leave the body via the normal eliminative channels.

This means that isopathic remedies are not directed against the illness and its symptoms, but that they support the body’s own regenerative ability, thus facilitating genuine healing processes. Isopathic treatment normalises the symbiotic balance of the endobiontic micro-organisms and their host.

This means that any isopathic-homœopathic treatment of bovine mastitis must be holistic, the remedies being administered by injection. A topical intramammary application is not indicated, nor is it necessary.

Isopathic therapy is a regulatory therapy (4). A healing of the sick cow and its sick udder can therefore only succeed if it is possible for the whole body to be regulated. Modern conditions of high performance make this harder and harder to guarantee; which means that additional disturbing factors must be eliminated as completely as possible. Thus, to ensure a successful treatment outcome it is indispensible in most cases to carry out an isopathic-homœopathic regulatory treatment of mastitis within the context of a constitutional treatment regime.

The following isopathic preparations are available for the treatment of bovine mastitis:

VETOKEHL® Muc 5X solution for injection (Mastavit Co., Hoya; active ingredient Mucor racemosus): for use in diseases of the vascular system, and generally in congestive conditions (e.g. swellings, œdema.)

VETOKEHL® Not 5X solution for injection (Mastavit Co., Hoya; active ingredient Penicillium notatum): this preparation contains no penicillin. It is suitable in all cases of bacterial (specifically staphylococcal and streptococcal) infections. In the isopathic sense, it deconstructs bacteria back to their non-pathogenic forms. N.B.: VETOKEHL Not must not be given at the same time as VETOKEHL Muc.

PEFRAKEHL® 6X solution for injection (Mastavit Co., Hoya; active ingredient Candida parapsilosis): this is used additionally with VETOKEHL Not in cases of bovine mastitis which are pyogenic or yeast-infected.

Immunomodulating Remedies

The homœopathic preparation VETOKEHL® Sub 4X solution for injection (Mastavit Co., Hoya) is used for immunomodulation in the treatment of bovine mastitis. It is produced from the filtrate of cultured Bacillus subtilis, and effects a stimulation of the body’s immune defence which is specific neither to the exciting agent nor the antigen. It was formerly described as a “non-specific irritant treatment”, this remedy is nowadays known as a “paramunity inducer” or “immunomodulator”. Such medicines, which enhance the organism’s non-antigen-specific defences, remove weaknesses in the defence and provide the individual with protection against a multiplicity of various noxæ, antigens, toxins and exciting agents.

Haptene Preparations

These preparations contain specific polysaccharides, which are obtained from the cell walls of the relevant micro-organisms. In many diseases, following the elimination of the triggering organisms, their toxins may remain behind to maintain the state of illness. Furthermore, these toxins themselves may be the sole cause of the illness. To protect themselves from their own toxins, triggering organisms form specific polysaccharides (known as antigen absorbers, according to CORNELIUS; Cornelius, 1990), whose job it is to bind the trigger’s own toxins or antigens and so prevent them from becoming active. Furthermore viruses, bacteria, plants and animals know how to store and transmit biological information, with the aid of saccharide units. Thus the code encrypted in this language is able to influence many regulatory processes in the host organism. The low molecular polysaccharides produce haptenes, which are capable of stimulating the immune defences, both cellular and humoral: not on their own, but in partnership with a higher molecular carrier (e.g. protein). Bacterial toxins, which had been liberated during previous infections but could not be eliminated from the body on account of deficient immunogenic properties, can be bound by haptenes, and then become an antigen. This antigen stimulates the immune system by activating T-lymphocytes, which finally leads to an elimination of the bacterial toxins. Four haptene preparations are available for the treatment of bovine mastitis, and with their assistance the microbiological soil can specifically be cleansed:

SANUKEHL® Cand 6X drops (Mastavit Co., Hoya; active ingredient Candida albicans),

SANUKEHL® Coli 7X solution for injection (Mastavit Co., Hoya; active ingredient Escherichia coli),

SANUKEHL® Staph 6X drops (Mastavit Co., Hoya; active ingredient Staphylococcus aureus) and

SANUKEHL® Strep 6X drops (Mastavit Co., Hoya; active ingredient Streptococcus pyogenes).

With the assistance of these remedies the microbiological soil can specifically be cleansed.

Remedies for removal of metabolic blockages and improvement of cell respiration

In addition to treatment with isopathic-homœopathic remedies, metabolic blockages, which may have various origins, need to be removed, and cell respiration improved. Suitable remedies for this purpose are CITROKEHL® (Mastavit Co., Hoya), a homœopathic remedy containing Citric acid. (Active ingredient Acidum citricum 10X/30X/200X - harmonic potency sequence), and COENZYME comp. (Heel Pharmaceuticals, Baden-Baden - fixed combination of homœopathic single remedies).

Treatment

According to Schneider (8) the treatment of bovine mastitis therefore rests on four pillars:

1. Removal of blockages in reaction and improvement of cell respiration;

2. Modulation of the immune system;

3. Isopathic deconstruction of the mastitis-triggering organism back to a form which is non-pathogenic;

4. Cleansing of the bacteriological soil.

During lactation this therapy can be supported by additional intramammary prescription of proteolytic enzymes:
During lactation, additional intramammary prescription of “MASTITIS OINTMENT VEYX® without antibiotics (Veyx-Pharma Co., Schwarzenborn; proteolytically acting combination remedy); to be used in cases of chronic mastitis alongside isopathic-homœopathic remedies at the end of lactation or soon therafter.

Acute bovine mastitis (Colimastitis): injection of VETOKEHL Not 5X + VETOKEHL Sub 4X + CITROKEHL (Combination injection) alternating with SANUKEHL Coli 7X + VETOKEHL Sub 4X; several times daily SANUKEHL (Coli or Staph) 6X drops orally according to results of bacteriological test.

Chronic bovine mastitis: in each case at intervals of 4 days, combination injection of VETOKEHL Not 5X + VETOKEHL Sub 4X + CITROKEHL, alternating with PEFRAKEHL 6X + VETOKEHL Muc 5X; several times daily SANUKEHL (Strep or Staph) 6X orally depending on results of bacteriological test.

Disordered secretion: twice weekly a combination injection of VETOKEHL Not 5X + VETOKEHL Sub 4X + CITROKEHL.

Pyogenic mastitis: twice weekly a combination injection of VETOKEHL Sub 4X + VETOKEHL Not 5X alternating with VETOKEHL Not 5X + PEFRAKEHL 6X. In each case, add to the first injection COENZYME comp. (Heel), and to the second injection CITROKEHL.

Mastitis with yeast infection: as for Pyogenic mastitis, plus SANUKEHL Cand 6X drops, orally several times daily.

Bibliography

[An English translation of the German titles is given - this does not imply the existence of an English translation of the work itself.]

1. Bleker M. Blutuntersuchung im Dunkelfeld nach Prof. Dr. Günther Enderlein. 2.Aufl. Semmelweis-Verlag, Hoya 1997.
[Dark field examination of blood using the method of Prof. Dr. Günther Enderlein. 2nd Ed., German/English]

2. Craven N, Williams MR, Field TR, Bunch KJ, Mayer SJ, Bourne FJ: The influence of extra-cellular and phagolysosomal pH changes on the bactericidal activity of bovine neutrophils against Staphylococcus aureus. Vet.Immunol Immunopathol 1986; 97-110.

3. DVG - (Deutsche Veterinärmed. Gesellschaft) Sachverständigenausschuß “Subklinische Mastitis” der Gruppe Milchhygiene: Leitlinien zur Bekämpfung der Mastitis des Rindes als Bestandsproblem. 3.Aufl. 1994.
[German Society of Veterinary Medicine, expert committee on Subclinical Mastitis from the Milk Hygiene Group. Guidelines for Combatting Bovine Mastitis as a Stock Problem.]

4. Enby E, Gosch P, Sheehan M: Die revolutionären medizinischen Entdeckungen von Professor Dr. Günther Enderlein. Semmelweis-Verlag, Hoya 1998.
[The revolutionary medical discoveries of Prof. Dr. Günther Enderlein.]

5. Enderlein G: Bakterien Cyclogenie. Prolegomena zu Untersuchungen über Bau, geschlechtliche und ungeschlechtliche Fortpflanzung und Entwicklung der Bakterien. 1925, Verlag Walter de Gruyter, Berlin; Nachdruck 1981 im Semmelweis-Verlag erschienen.
[Bacteria Cyclogeny. Prolegomena to investigations of structure, sexual and asexual propagation and development of bacteria. 1925, Walter de Gruyter Press, Berlin; reprinted 1981 by Semmelweis Press, Hoya.]

6. Kielwein G: Leitfaden der Milchkunde und Milchhygiene. 3.Aufl. Blackwell Wissenschaftsverlag, Berlin 1994. [Manual of Milk Studies and Milk Hygiene. 3rd Edn.]

7. Mayer SJ, Waterman AE, Keen PM, Craven N, Bourne FJ: Oxygen concentration in milk of healthy and mastitic cows and implications of low oxygen tension for the killing of Staphylococcus aureus by bovine neutrophils. J Dairy Res. 1988; 55: 513-519.

8. Schneider, P. (2000):Handbook of Isopathic/Homœopathic Therapy in Veterinary Practice

9. Schneider P, Mansfeld R: Tierärztliche Betreuung von Milchkuhbeständen unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Eutergesundheit. Prakt.Tierarzt 1989; 9: 49-56.
[Veterinary care of milk cow stock, with particular regard to healthy udders.]

 

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